Environmental pollution, the addition of any substance (solid, liquid or gas) or any form of energy such as heat sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air, water and land pollution . Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as plastic pollution , light pollution , noise pollution . Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being.


Although it can be caused by natural events such as forest fires and active volcanoes , use of the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source—that is, a source created by human activities. It has accompanied humankind ever since groups of people first congregated and remained for a long time in any one place. Indeed, ancient human settlements are frequently recognized by their wastes __ shell mounds  and rubble heaps, for instance. Pollution was not a serious problem as long as there was enough space available for each individual or group. However, with the establishment of permanent settlements by great numbers of people, pollution became a problem, and it has remained one ever since.

By the middle of the 20th century, an awareness of the need to protect air, water, and land environments from pollution had developed among the general public. In particular, the publication in 1962 of rachel carson book silent spring focused attention on environmental damage caused by improper use of pesticides such as DDT and other persistent chemicals that accumulate in the food chain  and disrupt the natural balance of ecosystems on a wide scale. In response, major pieces of environmental legislation, such as the Clean air act  (1970) and the Clean water act (1972; United States), were passed in many countries to control and mitigate environmental pollution.


Great efforts are made to limit the release of harmful substances into the environment through air pollution control, waste water treatment , solid waste management , hazardous waste management and recycling . Unfortunately, attempts at pollution control are often surpassed by the scale of the problem, especially in less developed countries Noxious levels of air pollution are common in many large cities, where particulates and gases from transportation heating, and manufacturing accumulate and linger. The problem of plastic on land and in the oceans has only grown as the use of single-use plastics has burgeoned worldwide. In addition, green house gas  emissions, such as methane and carbon dioxide, continue to drive global warming and pose a great threat to bio diversity and public health



Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air—which are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), each year air pollution is responsible for nearly seven million deaths around the globe. Nine out of ten human beings currently breathe air that exceeds the WHO’s guideline limits for pollutants, with those living in low- and middle-income countries suffering the most. In the United States, the clean air act established in 1970, authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to safeguard public health by regulating the emissions of these harmful air pollutants.

What Causes Air Pollution?

“Most air pollution comes from energy use and production,” says JOHN WALKE , director of the Clean Air Project, part of the at NRDC. “Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air.” And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. “Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and methane raises the earth’s temperature,” Walke says. “Another type of air pollution, smog, is then worsened by that increased heat, forming when the weather is warmer and there’s more ultraviolet radiation.” climate change  also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants, including mold (thanks to damp conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to a longer pollen season).

“We’ve made progress over the last 50 years improving air quality in the United States thanks to the Clean Air Act,” senior scientist and deputy director of the NRDC science center “But climate change will make it harder in the future to meet pollution standards, which are designed to protect health


What Is Water Pollution?

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances—often chemicals or microorganisms—contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment.


Water is uniquely vulnerable to pollution. Known as a “universal solvent,” water is able to dissolve more substances than any other liquid on earth. It’s the reason we have Kool-Aid and brilliant blue waterfalls. It’s also why water is so easily polluted. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into and mix with it, causing water pollution.

also read article an on PHYSICAL HEALTH


On human health

To put it bluntly: Water pollution kills. In fact, it caused 1.8 million deaths in 2015, according to a study published in the lancet Contaminated water can also make you ill. Every year, unsafe water sickens about 1 billion people. And low-income communities are disproportionately at risk because their homes are often closest to the most polluting industries.

Waterborne pathogens, in the form of disease-causing bacteria and viruses from human and animal waste, are a major cause of illness from contaminated drinking water. Diseases spread by unsafe water include cholera, giardia, and typhoid. Even in wealthy nations, accidental or illegal releases from sewage treatment facilities, as well as runoff from farms and urban areas, contribute harmful pathogens to waterways. Thousands of people across the United States are sickened every year by Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of pneumonia contracted from water sources like cooling towers and piped water).

On the environment

When water causes an algal bloom in a lake or marine environment, the proliferation of newly introduced nutrients stimulates plant and algae growth, which in turn reduces oxygen levels in the water. This dearth of oxygen, known as eutrophication , suffocates plants and animals and can create “dead zones,” where waters are essentially devoid of life. In certain cases, these harmful algal blooms  can also produce neurotoxins that affect wildlife, from whales to sea turtles.

Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways as well. These contaminants are toxic to aquatic life—most often reducing an organism’s life span and ability to reproduce—and make their way up the food chain as predator eats prey. That’s how tuna and other big fish accumulate high quantities of toxins, such as mercury.

Marine ecosystems are also threatened by marine debris which can strangle, suffocate, and starve animals. Much of this solid debris, such as plastic bags and soda cans, gets swept into sewers and storm drains and eventually out to sea, turning our oceans into trash soup and sometimes consolidating to form floating garbage patches. Discarded fishing gear and other types of debris are responsible for harming more than 200 different species of marine life.


With the rise of concrete buildings and roads, one part of the Earth that we rarely see is the soil. It has many different names, such as dirt, mud, and ground. However, it is definitely very important to us. The plants that feed us grow  in soil, and keeping it healthy is essential to maintaining a beautiful planet.

However, like all other forms of nature, soil also suffers from The pollution of soil  is a common thing these days, and it happens due to the presence of man-made elements.


Soil pollution is a complex phenomenon, and it can be triggered by a variety of things and activities, from the littering of cigarette butts  to excess use of chemical fertilizers. Every cause is linked with another. Pinpointing at one particular cause is quite difficult. However, the leading causes are listed below.

1. Industrial Activity

2. Agricultural Activities

3. Waste Disposal

4. Accidental Oil Spills

5. Acid Rain

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